Account is a very important object entity in the Conflux network. It is used to store CFX (every account has its CFX balance) and send Conflux transactions. Accounts and account balances are stored in a huge table in the Conflux VM, and they are part of the full state of the Conflux ledger.

Types of Accounts

Conflux has two types of accounts.

Note: There is a special type of smart contract in the Conflux network - the internal contracts. They are created automatically when the network is started or upgraded, but not by deploying contract codes. There are currently 6 internal contracts.

Similarities of Accounts

Differences of Accounts

External Accounts
Smart Contracts

External Accounts and Public-private Key Pairs

An external account is generated by a public-private key pair that can be used to prove that a transaction was indeed signed by the account, in order to prevent transaction falsification. The private key is used by the user to sign a transaction. It gives you the right to operate the assets on the account corresponding to the private key. Essentially, the user does not hold the CFX or the tokens but the private key. CFX is always present in Conflux's ledger.

This mechanism prevents malicious users from broadcasting fake transactions, as we can verify the address that sends the transaction at any time.

For example, if Alice wants to send CFX from her account to Bob's account, she needs to create a transaction and send it to the network for verification. Conflux uses the public key encryption mechanism to ensure that Alice can prove that the transaction is sent by herself. Suppose now, Eve, a malicious user, directly broadcasts a transaction, say, "send 5 CFX from Alice's account to Eve's account". Without the above-mentioned mechanism, no one would be able to verify that the transaction was sent by Alice.

External Account Creation

When you want to create an external account, you can use a wallet, like FluentWallet, or any language library, where essentially both of them generate a random private key.

A private key contains 64 hexadecimal characters and can be encrypted using a password.


The public key is calculated from the private key by the Elliptic Curve Cryptography Algorithm. Then, Keccak-256 hashing is performed on the public key, and the Conflux address is yielded by encoding the last 20 bytes (the first 4 bit will be set to 0001) of the result with base 32 formats.

// Mainnet address
// Testnet address

The public key can be calculated from the private key, but the private key cannot be calculated from the public key. The private key has to be kept safe by the user.

Smart Contract Account

Smart contracts also have base32 encoded addresses


This address is determined when the contract is deployed and is calculated by the deployed transaction's sender address, nonce, and the smart contract's code.

Note: The addresses of internal contracts are special - they are assigned by the network itself.

Details of Accounts

The global state of Conflux is composed of individual account states, each of which is an address-state pair (key pair).

A Conflux account state includes five parts:

The basic status of the account consists of eight fields as follows:

For more details about accounts, please refer to the Accounts section in Conflux Protocol Specification.

Revision #6
Created 2 August 2022 07:51:04 by Pana
Updated 2 August 2022 08:04:16 by Pana